Natural Gas

Compressed and Liquid Natural Gas Resource

Along with our partners, Powergas International is at the forefront of this trend towards natural gas usage, helping to pioneer new technologies in the developing world.  Projects to deliver gas compression facilities, natural gas driven power stations, and process discharge stations are currently being driven by our project capabilities, as we combine our strengths with our partners to apply new and innovative solutions to the natural gas industry in the developing world.

Our group companies are also involved in procurement and equipment supply for natural gas related equipment such as generating sets, compressors, ground storage, and filling stations.  With our links to experienced manufacturers, and with safety always foremost in our approach, Powergas natural gas projects are designed for quality, reliability, and to the highest safety standards.

LNG is Liquefied Natural Gas

It is produced by liquefying standard natural gas (using cryogenic technology) to near atmospheric pressure thereby reducing its volume by 1/600th. The energy content of LNG by volume thus becomes 600 times of standard natural gas making it very efficient to use as fuel.

As fuel natural gas is far more cost effective solution than conventional fossil fuels including petrol and diesel. Further by liquefying at near atmospheric pressure it becomes much easier to transport large quantity of natural gas over long distances. The simple distribution system by trucks works as a “virtual pipeline” and provides reliability of supply similar to pipelines over long distances, even up to 3000 Kms.

Further like any natural gas it is far more environment friendly resulting in 70% to 90% reduction in Carbon Monoxide content and reduce overall carbon emission. Thus it contributes major reduction of green house gases. LNG handling and transportation is also safer as cargo being in near atmospheric pressure during transportation chances of leakage is minimal.

LNG can be used both as a fuel for power generation, for other fuel furnaces and also as auto fuel. As auto fuel it gives sufficiently long range to vehicles (including heavy trucks) comparable to petrol or diesel. Further being a natural gas it causes much less wear & tear resulting in contamination free crank case oil, no sooty spark spare plugs. Further, LNG vehicles can also be made to run on a duel mode using petrol.

LNG thus offers a fuel whose use is cheaper, safer and more environment friendly than the petrol and diesel and as such ideal fuel for power generation and auto fuel promoting environmental sustainability replacing fossil fuels

LNG Composition:

Hydrocarbon Components Mole (%)
Methane [CH4] 82.0% – 94.0%
Ethane [C2H6] 3.0% – 6.0%
Propane [C3H8] 0.1% – 2.0%
Butane [C4H10] 0.1% – 0.7%
Pentane [C5H12] Trace
Hexane-plus [C6H14+] Trace
Inert Nitrogen Gas [N2] Trace
Carbon Dioxide [CO2] NIL
Oxygen [O2] Trace
Hydrocarbon Liquids & Water NIL
Sulphur [S] 10 parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen sulphide [H2S] and not more than 15 ppm of total sulphur
Gross Heating Value: Not less than (35.39 MJ/scm)

CNG is compressed natural gas.

It is produced simply by compressing standard natural gas to a fraction of its volume through a common technological process, usually at a pressure of around 200 bar (1 bar = 1 atm).

As a fuel, CNG is a far more cost effective solution than conventional fuels such as petrol and diesel. It is also considerably safer, even in the case of leakage, and far more environmentally friendly. Boasting a 70-90% reduction in Carbon Monoxide content, CNG can contribute significantly towards the reduction of emissions.

CNG can be used both as a fuel for power generation and in automotive applications. In terms of equipment, CNG provides a reduction in general operating wear and tear; examples of this include a lack of contamination or dilution of crank case oil and the elimination of the fouling of spark plugs. As an added advantage, vehicles powered by CNG retain the ability to also run on petrol.

CNG offers a fuel that is both cheaper and more environmentally friendly than petrol and diesel, and as such is an ideal fuel to drive growth while promoting environmental responsibility and sustainability in today’s world

 

CNG Composition:

Hydrocarbon Components Mole (%)
Methane [CH4] 82.0 – 94.0
Ethane [C2H6] 3.0 – 6.0
Propane [C3H8] 0.1 – 2.0
Butane [C4H10] 0.1 – 0.7
Pentane [C5H12] 0.1 – 0.2
Hexane-plus [C6H14+] 0.0 – 0.2
Inert Nitrogen Gas [N2] < 15.0
Carbon Dioxide [CO2] <10.0
Oxygen [O2] Trace
Hydrocarbon Liquids & Water Gas shall be free of any hydrocarbons and water in liquid phase at the delivery point
Sulphur [S] < 10 parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen sulphide [H2S] and not more than 15 ppm of total sulphur
Gross Heating Value: Not less than (35.39 MJ/scm)

Frequently asked questions

  • What is CNG?CNG is Compressed Natural Gas. This is primarily composed of Methane (CH4) with some higher alkane content and some other gases. CNG does not contain any hydrocarbons or water in the liquid phase.
  • What is LPG?LPG is Liquefied Petroleum Gas and consists of mainly Propane (C3H8), Propylene (C3H6), Butane (C4HO) and Butylenes (C4H8) in various mixtures. It is produced as a byproduct of the natural gas processing and petroleum refining processes. The components of LPG though in the gaseous phase at ambient temperature can be liquefied under moderate pressure. Therefore, LPG is stored as a liquid in pressurized containers. LPG is heavier than natural gas and specially air. Accordingly, LPG leaks are dangerous as being heavy it spreads at ground level till it finds an ignition source thereby causing fire and/or explosion.
  • What is LNG?LNG is Liquefied Natural Gas. Natural Gas is liquefied by cooling it to -1600C (-2600F) at atmospheric pressure. The primary composition is Methane with some higher Alkane (Parafin) content. LNG is totally free from inert and devoid of any moisture whatsoever.
  • How much CNG can a CNG container can hold?CNG containers typically hold 1500 Nm3 TO 5400 Nm3
  • How much pressure is in the CNG container?The CNG Container can be filled up to 250 bar pressure.
  • What is the usable capacity of the CNG container?The usable capacity depends upon the pressure required at the fuelling station. Typically it is around 95% of the capacity of the CNG container.
  • At what pressure can the CNG container deliver natural gas?Pressure reducing stations will be provided to reduce the pressure from the CNG container to supply pressure, normally from 2 bar to 50 mbar.
  • At what flow rate can the CNG container deliver natural gas?Pressure reducing stations will be designed to meet the fuelling requirements. If required, heating can be provided to supply natural gas at ambient temperature.
  • How much a LNG container can hold?LNG container can hold 12,600 Nm3 to 27,000 Nm3 i.e. almost 6 times of a CNG container.
  • How much pressure is in the LNG container?The LNG container has near atmospheric pressure i.e. almost zero pressure.
  • What is the usable capacity of the LNG container?Typically it is around 95% of the capacity of the LNG container.
  • At what pressure can the LNG container deliver natural gas?LNG at delivering point is vaporized and can be directly fed to the engine/ boiler/furnace, which normally need at low pressure. However, its pressure could be increased to desired level by providing a compressor.
  • At what flow rate can the LNG container delivery natural gas?Desired rate is achieved by providing a vaporizer of suitable design.

HOW SAFE IS NATURAL GAS?

  • Natural gas at ambient temperature and pressure is in the gaseous phase.
  • Natural gas is an environmentally friendly fuel. It is a cleaner burning fuel than both gasoline and diesel fuels. In fact, natural gas offers significant safety advantages as compared to both gasoline and diesel.
  • Natural gas is non-toxic, and has no potential for ground or water contamination in the event of a fuel release.
  • Being lighter than air, natural gas rapidly disperses upwards and to a state of low concentration when released into the environment, making it a far safer form of fuel in the event of a leak or accident.
  • Liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel, on the other hand, are heavier than air. As they evaporate, gasoline and diesel vapors tend to accumulate around the source and pose an explosion hazard. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is another fuel less safe than natural gas, as it is heavier and will also tend to accumulate.
  • Odourant is added to natural gas to create a recognizable smell in the case of leakage. Where necessary, gas detection equipment can be installed so that an immediate alarm is activated in the unlikely event of a leakage.
  • Three conditions must be met before there is potential for a fire or an explosion:
    1. Leakage
    2. Mixing of fuel with air to create a mixture in the flammable range, which, given the nature of the fuel is highly unlikely.
    3. A suitable source of ignition

LEAKAGE

  • Natural gas is supplied through pipelines and there is normally no storage requirement. Diesel, on the other hand, is stored in large tanks which offer a very real threat of leakage, posing a fire hazard.
  • Natural gas, unlike liquid fuels can not be siphoned, which is a strong risk of leakage / spillage, and is a frequent source of disaster in many locations across the world.
  • Natural gas systems are “sealed” to prevent any spills.

CREATING A FLAMMABLE FUEL-AIR MIXTURE

  • Natural gas will ignite at a temperature of 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit and between 5.3% to 14% concentration in air.
    The high ignition temperature and limited flammability range make any accidental ignition or combustion of natural gas highly unlikely.
  • Gasoline will ignite at a temperature of 450 – 900 degrees F and between 1.4% to 7.6% concentrations in air.
  • Diesel will ignite at a temperature of 400-500 degrees F and between 0.7% to 5.0 % concentrations in air.
    Diesel is a potentially dangerous fuel, but, over time, we have learned to use it safely.
    Like diesel, natural gas must be understood and respected to be used safely.
  • SAFETY RECORD:There are two basic reasons for the excellent safety records of Natural gas:
    1. The structural integrity of natural gas systems
    2. The physical quantities of natural gas as a fuel handled in a power plant, such that there is a smaller volumetric energy density in a natural gas fuelled system than in an equivalent gasoline or diesel fuelled system